Ordinary bubbles rise in water rapidly and burst on the water surface releasing the encapsulated gas into the atmosphere. Fine nanobubbles, on the other hand, stay in water because they are extremely slow to rise. Bubbles in diameter of 10 microns rise 3mm per minute.
The Science of Fine and Ultra-fine NanoBubbles
Bubbles contained in a liquid are not all visible to the naked eye. Bubbles with the size of a few millimeters in diameter show visible surfacing action in a liquid (as in carbonated drinks, air diffusers and air stones). The presence of fine bubbles of dozens of microns in diameter can be confirmed with white turbidity in a liquid, because these bubbles are scattering substances. Bubbles in diameter smaller than the wavelength of light (400 – 700 nanometers) are called ultra-fine nanobubbles. They are too small to see, even with powerful microscopes, and have remarkable properties which larger bubbles do not possess. These nanobubbles do not rise, moving horizontally in liquid, maintaining their availability to implode and release gas into solution as needed. Ultra-fine nanobubbles can remain in liquid for extended periods of time, months under certain conditions, are negatively charged, and are under extremely high pressure as compared to larger bubbles.
Fine Bubble (Micro, Nano)
Fine NanoBubble Characteristics
Because fine nanobubbles are negatively charged, they repel each other. Accordingly, fine nanobubbles do not bind to one another and bubble density is not reduced.
As the bubble size becomes smaller, inner pressure increases due to surface tension of the interface between gas and liquid matter. Logically, the pressurization process is infinite. Pressurization promotes dissolution of gas into the water (Henry’s Law) as the fine nanobubbles implode.
Fine nanobubbles are self-pressurized to burst, dissolving encapsulated gas into solution to maintain optimum levels.
Ultra-fine NanoBubbles (Nano-size)
Ultra-fine NanoBubble Characteristics
Ultra-fine nanobubbles have been confirmed to stay in a liquid for over six months, moving horizontally in solution due to their Brownian movement. They do not rise to the surface for release into the atmosphere.
Nano-size bubbles do not scatter visible light, making the water solution look transparent.
How We Measure Our Bubbles
Gaia uses a Malvern Instruments particle analyzer (NanoSight NS300) to measure the ultra-fine nanobubbles our technology produces.
Malvern’s Nano Tracking Analysis technology observes the Brownian motion of nano-particles in liquid in real time, as seen in the video. Because the speed of particle depends on its diameter, the particle size distribution graph of diameter and number of particles can be obtained by measuring the Brownian motion pattern.
Click here to see an example of an analysis of Gaia’s ultra-fine nanobubbles generated by the NanoSight NS300.
What Can Ultra-Fine NanoBubbles Do?
The surface is just being scratched as far as the applications into which ultra-fine nanobubbles can be effectively and efficiently deployed. Basically, anywhere where super gas saturation and water/gas solution level maintenance are beneficial, ultra-fine nanobubbles can be effectively employed.